RISER UCSD Research Summit

On the 11th and 12th August, Allison, Kevin, and Matt traveled to San Diego for a RISER research summit hosted by our RISER partners at UCSD. The summit aimed to plan closer collaboration between the Melbourne and UCSD teams, as well as coordination between the RISER and WIFIRE projects.








UCSD-KeplerThe first day of the summit was focused on reviewing current activities across Melbourne and San Diego. Matt gave an update and led the discussion on the RISER project activities, and Kevin led a discussion ab
out Phoenix RapidFire. Ilkay Altintas summarized activities in the WIFIRE project from the UCSD side, and gave a demonstration of the Kepler workflow software being developed and used for managing fire modelling workflows.


UCSD-JessicaOther UCSD contributors to the day included Jessica Block, Raymond DeCallafon, Michael Gollner, HansWerner Braun, Monika Braun, Jeff Sale, and Jurgen Schulze. The discussion also covered a WIFIRE Calit2 highschool student project to develop FireTracker: a prototype social media system for fire information.



On the second day discussions focused primarily on concrete collaboration activities. In amongst a range of exciting ideas that came out of the day, two of the primary areas of concrete collaboration were identified as 1. computing performance bounds for environmental sensor networks; and 2. using Kepler as a common platform for workflow and stream processing for dynamic geospatial data. Our objective is to hold a second joint summit in Melbourne in the first half of 2014, with the focus then on disseminating the results of these and other RISER activities to the broader stakeholder community.

A new subproject “sensorRISER: Opportunistic Sensing for Emergency Management”

Webcams, traffic counters, closed-circuit TVs, smartphones, iBeacons… We are surrounded by sensors and information systems that are capturing and communicating live data about particular phenomena, events, and trends around them. Sometimes, data sensed for one purpose may be useful for another purpose, called “opportunistic” sensing.

smartphone UAVWSNiBeacon

In the case of an emergency, traditional and authoritative data sources may be disrupted. We may not know in advance what data will be available to help build situational awareness and support decision making. Hence, opportunistic sensing can potentially be a useful source of data to build resilient emergency information systems. This project, undertaken by the RISER team, aims to identify and showcase specific examples of using opportunistic sensing for emergency applications, with a focus on urban emergency environments.

In stage 1, the team will look to partner with an organisation that is gathering live data from different types of sensors across a number of environments and determine one or two specific scenarios in which opportunistic sensing might assist in an emergency situation, such as urban flash-flooding or a hazmat incident.

From this point, mechanisms through which data might be used to help in the scenario will be documented, the identification and assessment of techniques, and models to manipulate the data into workable emergency intelligence will be investigated.

The outline system design and summary scoping report generated from this first stage will be used as a basis for a prototype system implementation.

Parallelizing InfoSphere Streams

In order to interpolate a large surface from massive scattered data more efficiently, tessellated spatial windows have been implemented in parallel on the data streams. A divide-and-conquer approach has been used. The scattered data in each tessellated region are processed to interpolate the subsurface within the same region. The subsurfaces are then recombined to generate the whole surface. The interpolation in the tessellated regions can be processed in parallel in InfoSphere Streams. Peter tested the Intra-PE loading split parallelization of the spatial interpolation operator on a dual CPUs machine (see the figure below where the color scheme denotes processing elements). Processing the streams in parallel improves the efficiency of spatial interpolation significantly. Peter is currently working on parallelisation over multiple hosts now. This is expected to further improve the performance since more CPUs are available on more hosts.


Improved spatial interpolation operator

Peter upgraded the stream operator for spatial interpolation. The new version of this operator uses in-operator memory more efficiently, which allows multiple operators to run in parallel. Peter also added an option to the operator which controls how the grid positions are loaded and saved. If the number of the grid positions is not too large, they can be loaded and saved in the in-operator memory before the scattered data are received. Once all the scattered data are received (a “flush” event of a stream’s tumbling window), the operator can begin interpolating the surface immediately. Otherwise, data can be saved in persistent memory (a file or a database) and be queried after the scattered data are all received. This improved operator uses less memory, at the cost of increased latency, spending more time waiting for grid positions.

External battery scheme

IMAG0040Peter and James modified 13 sensor motes for the new external battery scheme, and more motes will be modified soon. These motes will replace a number of motes in the field Olinda that suffered complete battery depletion. Effective battery management is one of the most challenging aspects of the practical network deployment. Peter also made and tested a prototype of the waterproof battery case and a third-party USB charger (see the photo below). Replacing batteries can be highly time-consuming. The new scheme should dramatically streamline vital battery maintenance, allow USB-charging of batteries at the base, with hot-swapping of charged in the field. Further battery kits will be implemented soon, following field testing of the new scheme.

Meetings and presentations

Allison attended in Taiwan a workshop on UAVs at the National Cheng Kung University. The outcome of this is helping in the selection of a UAV for the RISER project to support our ongoing research in grassland curing monitoring. Allison also attended the UN FIG conference in Malaysia where various discussions were held on disaster management technologies and their transfer to developing countries. Finally, RISER is currently working on supporting an initiative by the CFA in Anglesea to deploy a sensor network in collaboration with local primary schools as part of a disaster management education outreach project. RISER will provide training and support in the deployment and use of these sensors.

Spatiotemporal windows in InfoSphere

fig2Peter implemented polygonal, extent-based spatial windows in InfoSphere Streams (see below). The spatial window can be easily combined with a temporal window to create a spatiotemporal window. Peter is testing several spatial interpolation methods (IDW, natural neighborhood, thin plate spline, and kriging) to interpolate a temperature surface within the spatial window from simulated massive scattered data. The efficiency and accuracy of different interpolation methods under different configurations of spatiotemporal window is being compared.

Fitting data to FMC models

OvsPPeriodSep_Op_12To test our procedure of fitting fuel moisture content (FMC) data to the different models in the literature, we have been using some data supplied by Kevin. The data involves field observations of FMC and associated weather observations. The original data was collected every 3 hours from 7am to 7pm over a number of days in an open area and in a forested area. The data was interpolated to hourly observations. Peter then fitted two hourly models of FMC (based on Catchpole et. al. and Matthews et al.) to the hourly observations. As anticipated, the predictions show a good fit to the models (see below). A similar process will be used to fit further models to the data, and to fit the models to data collected in our coming chamber and field experiments.

New funded project (NDRGS)

Allison is one of the chief investigators on a new funded NDRGS (Natural Disaster Resilience Grants Scheme) project. The project, led by RMIT, concerns using GNSS to improve prediction of severe weather, and involves support from DEPI, BoM, the CRC-SI and the UK Met Office.

Coming workshop in UCSD

Planning for the WiFIRE/RISER research summit at UCSD has progressed well. The summit is planned for August 11th/12th at UCSD, with Allison, Matt, Peter, and Kevin planning to represent RISER. The program includes a day of discussions on collaboration, followed by a day of writing and concrete collaboration planning.

Integrating new sensors in RISERnet

Last update we reported on a new collaboration emerging with other researchers working in the area of fuel moisture content (FMC) monitoring at the University of Melbourne, including Tom Duff, Petter Nyman, Craig Nitschke. Inspired by Petter’s works on estimating FMC by inserting soil moisture probes (VH400) into the fuel layer, Peter designed a plan to log the analogue output signal of the VH400 probes using a waspmote in RISERnet.

IMAG0022With a little rewiring, one of the sensor sockets on a waspmote can support three VH400 probes. Peter has tested this plan and successfully measured the voltage of the output signals of the three VH400 probes using a waspmote (pictured). As fuel temperature is an important parameter for calculating FMC, we have also ordered five soil temperature sensors from Libelium to investigate if we can use them to measure fuel temperature. Peter has modified the experimental interface to include these two new types of sensors (right). Thus we now have two potential routes to estimate FMC with RISERnet: 1) using indirect measurements which include temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed to calculate FMC with many existing models; 2) using direct measurements of the soil temperature sensor and soil moisture sensors VH400 to compute FMC using Petter’s equation. In our coming experiments, we will use precisely controlled environmental chamber experiments to measure the true FMC, and compare this to our two estimation models. We will also now be able to investigate if more accurate estimates of FMC can be obtained by combining the weather data and direct measurements from the fuel layer.

Presentations at the University of Münster,

Matt gave a talk about the RISER project at the Institute for Geoinformatics (iFGI) at the University of Münster, Germany as part of a symposium to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the institute. The symposium was entitled “Geoinformatics: Solving Global Challenges,” and Matt was one of five speakers from around the world invited to share their views of how geoinformatics research can contribute to solutions for grand challenges like emergency response.

Collaboration meetings

The past fortnight saw two meetings with UCSD RISER collaborator Jessica Block as part of the process of planning further close collaboration between the UCSD-led WiFire project and the RISER project. A research summit in San Diego is planned in August 2014 to plan collaborative research activities, in particular around the fuel moisture content and stream processing/workflow computational frameworks used across the two projects. A further enduser workshop to showcase the outcomes of the collaboration in Melbourne in 2015.

In the MoistuRISER project, Matt, Peter, and Kevin also met to discuss collaboration with a number of other researchers working in the area of fuel moisture content monitoring at the University of Melbourne, including Tom Duff, Petter Nyman, Craig Nitschke.

Spatial analysis in stream framework

setupPeter have been investigating the potential of conducting various spatial analyses using the IBM InfoSphere Streams architecture. Although the current spatial extent of RISERnet is small, the project also consider the issues that arise when scaling to networks of thousands or more nodes. The current investigation considers using spatial stream processing to achieve efficient and accurate spatial interpolation. For example, Kriging is one method used extensively to interpolate spatial data. But the Kriging matrix computations required for massive, scattered sensor readings are computationally expensive, and not well-suited to rapid, online stream processing. We are testing the computational efficiency and accuracy of interpolation stream operators by decomposing the sampled area using different schemes. We will also investigate the impacts of different sampling schemes on the performance of the spatial interpolation in streams. For example, the figure (right) shows a Delaunay and Voronoi decomposition of a simulated wireless sensor networks. Efficient stream processing requires relies on such spatial “windows” which affect both the efficient and accuracy of the resulting interpolation.

Temporal pattern of the RISERnet data

Azadeh has investigated the temporal pattern of the RISERnet data by decomposing the RISERnet data to seasonality, trend, and residual. She also studied the spatial characteristics of the RISERnet data through variography analysis and prediction maps. The knowledge gained through this preliminary analysis is helping us prepare for when the full network data becomes available in the Spring.


Fitting observations to FMC models

fmcfit_crswk0.010Peter investigated algorithms for fitting dynamic models to noisy observations by minimum least mean square error estimation. The chosen algorithm was tested by simulation before using real observations from the chamber experiment. FMC observations were simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the output of an FMC model proposed by Matthews et al. The fitted model can generate predictions that match the simulated observations (see the figure, right). Once experimental FMCs are measured, these observations will be fitted to the different models using this algorithm, which allows us to compare the validity of these models.

Experimental control pannel

guiPeter has developed an experimental program for the sensor motes, along with an interface that controls the mote, and logs and displays real-time sensor readings for the above chamber experiment (see the figure right). This interface will help us set up sensor motes in the growth chamber, as well as in the subsequent field experiments.

Experimental design for validating FMC models

Matt and Peter have designed the experiments for validating three selected fuel moisture content (FMC) models. Winter weather means that there is currently not enough variation to FMC for field validation. We are therefore planning a preliminary experiment on a fuel and soil sample in a growth chamber. In the growth chamber, the environmental conditions can be artifically controlled. The experiment will vary the temperature, humidity, light, and wind speed condi- tions inside the chamber. One RISERnet mote in the chamber will then monitor the environmental condi- tions. Hourly changes to FMC will be measured using the FMC meter. The chamber validation will then help supplement the subsequent field validation, giving useful information about the performance of the different models in a controlled environment.

ANZDMC conference

mattOn 5th May Matt presented a paper on behalf of RISER at the 2014 Australian and New Zealand Disaster and Emergency Management Conference (ANZDMC) in Gold Coast, Queensland. The paper was entitled “RISERnet: Situational Awareness using Environmental Sensor Networks,” and gave an over- view of the RISERnet subproject, introducing the network itself, the system architecture, and the overall motivation for RISERnet. The paper was well received and prompted several questions from the audience about next steps. The conference itself also provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the RISER project more broadly with a range of stake-holders.

Discussion about field observations of grassland curing in CFA

On 13th May Matt, Allison, Sarah, and Peter visited CFA in Burwood East for a follow-up meeting with Daniel and David in connection with the CFA Grassland Curing Program. We discussed potential collaborations between RISER and the CFA team on developing applications and information processing systems for field observations of grassland curing. In particular, the possibility of using wireless sensor networks or UAVs to automate and extend field observations were discussed, and further actions are planned around this growing collaboration.

Testing the external battery scheme

peterIn the RISERnet project, Simon has now sourced suitable connectors to implement our plan of powering sensor motes by external batteries. James and Peter have rewired one mote and tested the new external battery system. Further connectors are on order and rewiring of all the motes should begin in the next fortnight.


New PhD student joins RISER

aaditThis week we welcome to the team Aadit Shrestha. Aadit is a new PhD student with a background in GIS, electrical engineering, and sensor networks. Aadit is starting by investigating techniques for fusion of spatially and temporally dense (but uncertain) wireless sensor network data streams (such as RISERnet data) with sparse but authoritative data (such as from the Bureau of Meteorology). His initial focus will be to investigate probabilistic approaches, such as Kalman filtering, Bayesian estimation, and kernel recursive least squares.

The second RISER Project Management Committee (PMC) meeting

The second RISER Project Management Committee (PMC) meeting was held at the Office of the Fire Services Commissioner on 23rd April 2014. Matt, Sarah, Kim, and John were at the OFSC, with Jessica and Juerg participating via teleconference. After summarizing the progress in RISER over the past 4 months, the discussion opened more broadly to review and planning. Amongst the key topics discussed were included:

  • Deployment of the remaining RISERnet network, including consideration of deployment in differ- ent locations in Olinda, taking in a wider range of topography and exposure.
  • Potential application of the RISERnet redeploy- able sensor network concept to improve prepara- tion for planned burns.
  • Development of grassland curing research plat- form to help capture crowdsourced data to further support the CFA Observer Program.
  • Ongoing progress in the WiFIRE project at UCSD, and potential for even closer integration with RISER.

Investigating spatial correlation in the RISERnet data

Untitled 2The spatial correlation in the RISERnet data is being analyzed by calculating the semivariogram of the data, using Moran’s I and Geary’s C autocorrelation statistics. The results show that data captured at different time of a day showed very different levels of spatial autocorrelation. Current work is applying the geostatistics methods described above (e.g., cokriging) to investigate the relationship between different environmental variables, and between these environmental variables and topography.

Implementing spatial interpolation with stream (update)

Peter has continued his work on the implementation of further spatial interpolation methods using the IBM Infosphere Stream Processing platform. Ordinary and sample Kriging and cokriging interpolation have now been implemented. This represents a major milestone in the MoistuRISER platform, as we now have completed key foundational stream operators. Peter is currently documenting the usage of these interpolation operators and summarizing the main steps for building stream programming language (SPL) operators with C++.

New visitor

visitorAntony Galton from University of Exeter, UK, will be a visiting academic connected with the RISER project at the University of Melbourne during his sabbatical in November 2014. Antony is a world-leading researcher in the area of the ontology of geographic information, and has worked extensively in connection with ontologies for emergency management.

Abstract accepted to the AFAC

Matt, Allison, Kevin, Azadeh, and Peter have had an abstract accepted to the AFAC (Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council) 2014 conference, to be held in Wellington, New Zealand, September 2014. The abstract was accepted as a poster.

Matt Duckham, Allison Kealy, Azadeh Mousavi, Kevin Tolhurst, and Peter Zhong. High-detail fuel moisture content monitoring using the RISERnet sensor network. In: Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council, 2014.

Improving RISERnet

moteRecent work on RISERnet has focused on improving the battery system on the nodes. James replaced non-rechargeable batteries in about 15 motes with new rechargeable batteries, recently arrived from the supplier in Spain. Working together, Peter, James, and Simon have agreed on a hardware modification that will allow the mounting of rechargeable battery packs outside of the motes. This change will significantly reduce the time and labor required to swap batteries. In addition, the new battery packs will be capable of being charged separate from the sensor motes, not possible with the current configuration. These updates should significantly accelerate the deployment and reduce the maintenance load for the RISERnet network.

Implementing spatial interpolation with stream


Temperature interpolated by the stream operator.

Peter implemented a generic C++ primary operator for the IBM Infosphere Stream Processing platform for spatial interpolation of RISERnet data. The incoming RISERnet point data is interpolated to a regular grid in real time by this interpolator. The new stream operator is based on tumbling window-event handlers and supports algorithms which includes inverse distance weighting (IDW), natural neighbour interpolation, and thin plane spline. In the future, further interpolation algorithms such as Kriging and GWR (geographically weighted regression) are planned.

Characterising RISERnet data for MoistuRISER

Azedeh has been investigating how the spatial and temporal characteristics of the RISERnet vary over the field. By studying the temporal variation of observed weather conditions (like humidity, solar radiation, and temperature, pictured) the project is better understanding the spatial variation in these parameters, as the basis for subsequent fine fuel moisture content modelling and estimation. In parallel, Peter has begun implementation of key algorithms and models on the IBM Infosphere Stream Computing platform that will form the basis of MoistuRISER.spatial_Map

Stream processing

Peter and James implemented a communication tunnel between the stream server and RISERview (the RISERnet user interface) using the MQTT protocol. The stream server is now able to trigger cache invalidation and automatically rebuild data graphics for RISERview. The updates also enable direct transfer of sensor data (and in future analysis results) from the stream server to RISERview for real time visualisation (see high-level architecture below).



Public presentations in Creswick

update7Kevin gave a series of short talks to local Creswick residents interested in the background to our RISER experiments on decision-making under uncertainty. In addition to discussing the importance of better understanding of human decision-making, Kevin’s talks gave an introduction to the technology used to predict bushfire risk and impacts, such as the Phoenix RapidFire system. The talk highlighted several different ways in which we deal with uncertainty in our bushfire predictions.

User interface for RISERnet

James and Jasmin have now completed development of the basic user-interface to the RISERnet sensor data, the focus of the RISERview subproject. The interface is able to display in detail sensor data from individual nodes, as well as in summary from across the entire monitored area. The interface is designed to operate on the full range of devices (smart phones, tablet computers, personal computers, …). From this basis, a range of refinements are under development, including better interface interaction and symbology; and the integration of the platform with other analysis functions, such as MoistuRISER.


ANZ Disaster Management Conference

ANZDM conference

ANZDM conference

Matt, Allison, and Kevin have had an abstract accepted for oral presentation at the Australian and New Zealand Disaster Management Conference (ANZDMC). The abstract is in connection with the RISERnet project, discussion the development and uses of a wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring of sensitive natural environments, like the forest. The paper title is:

    Duckham, M., Kealy, A., Tolhurst, K. (2014) RISERnet: Situational awareness using environmental sensor networks. In: Australian and New Zealand Disaster and Emergency Management Conference.

Azadeh Mousavi joins RISER

Azadeh Mousavi

Azadeh Mousavi

Azadeh Mousavi joins RISER from the beginning of March as an IBM Research Intern. Azadeh brings expertise in PGMs (probabilistic graphical models) for mining sensor data. She will work specifically in connection with the MoistuRISER project, using the data from RISERnet to estimate fuel moisture content.

Mini-workshop at Creswick

Mcreswickatt, Allison, and Peter joined Kevin in Creswick on 6th February to work on several related tasks. In particular, the mini-workshop focused on fuel moisture computations, laying the groundwork for the design of a system to use RISERnet data to compute fine-grained fuel moisture measures.

MERIT visiting scholar award

Francisco EscobarAllison was successful in being awarded funding from MERIT (Melbourne School of Engineering) to support Francisco Escobar to work at the University of Melbourne as a visiting scholar in November 2014. Francisco is a world expert in cartography and spatial information systems, and plans to collaborate with the RISER team on the ongoing development of innovative user interfaces for emergency information systems.

WIFIRE Advisory Board

Matt has joined the WIFIRE Advisory Board, which provides strategic advice to the WIFIRE project based at UCSD in San Diego. WIFIRE is a sister-project to RISER investigating wildfire predictions and simulations, and led by UCSD researcher Ilkay Altintas. WIFIRE was awarded $2.65M USD funding from the NSF and is building strong links to the RISER project, on which UCSD is a partner organization.

RISER PMC meeting

The first RISER Project Management Committee meeting was held on 20 December 2013 at the Office of the Fire Services Commissioner in the Melbourne CBD. The RISER PMC provide strategic guidance to the RISER project, reviewing progress and providing strategic advice on the research direction. At the meeting were PMC members Jessica Block, Matt Duckham, Juerg von Kaenel, Kim Lowell, and John Schauble. In addition to providing the opportunity to review early progress in the project, the PMC discussed a RISER white paper setting out the plans for progress in the three key RISER research areas: new data streams, novel methods for data integration, and innovative interfaces for user interaction.

MODSIM papers

MODSIM2013_logoThe RISER team was involved in four presentations at MODSIM, the 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. MODSIM was held this year in Adelaide, December 1-6. PhD student Lisa Cheong presented her work on evaluating interfaces for decision making under uncertainty in a bushfire context. Her abstract was entitled:

    Cheong, L.M., Bleisch, S., Duckham, M., Kealy, A., Tolhurst, K. and Wilkening, T. (2013) A methodology for evaluating the impact of visualization on decision-making under uncertainty for PHOENIX Rapidfire. Proc. MODSIM 2013, p50.

Kevin Tolhurst was also an author on three papers connected with advances in fire-spread modeling.

Geosensor Networks: Dagstuhl Seminar

Matt and Allison attended a Dagstuhl Seminar on Geosensor Networks. The Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Germany is one of the leading centers for informatics in the world, with a long waiting list to host seminars. Matt was one of the organizers of the seminar, entitled: Geosensor Networks: Bridging Algorithms and Applications. The week-long seminar brought together researchers from around the world with expertise in the theory, design, and deployment of geosensor networks for an intensive collaboration. The aim of the seminar was to foster better knowledge transfer from theoretical approaches to geosensor networks through to practical applications, such as that being attempted in the RISER project.


Usability testing

Human subject testsOur work on designing improved interfaces for interacting with uncertain mapped information about hazardous areas continues. Another round of human subject tests ran this week, testing the performance of human subjects when presented with different maps and textual information about the level of certainly of fire at a location. The stimuli for the experiments is based on output from the Phoenix RapidFire model.

RISERnet deployment

Sensor node in Olinda

Sensor node in Olinda

RISERnet continues it’s full field deployment. Matt and Peter joined Simon and James in Olinda to advise on aspects of the deployment. A problem with the connection at the gateway (Meshlium) unfortunately led to one being returned to the lab for further configuration. Unfortunately, this will delay the full deployment start by a week or two.

Project Management Committee

The RISER Project Management Committee, responsible for general oversight of the project and providing guidance on the content, conduct, and scope of the project, has been constituted from the project partners along with expertise from outside the project. The current PMC members are: Matt Duckham (Chair), Juerg von Kaenel, Kim Lowell, John Schauble, and Kevin Tolhurst.

AFAC Collaboration Event

On 21 October, Allison and Matt attended an AFAC collaboration event entitled Exploring a ‘Mountain of Data’. The participants included providers and recipients of emergency management information from across the country, and Matt gave a short presentation on the RISER project.

RISER is hiring

We are seeking an outstanding early career academic (post-doc) with a strong grounding in geographic information science and a specialization in geovisualization or geovisual analytics to work on the RISER project. For more information, see the official position advertisement.

RISER at ADMP meeting

ADMP talk slidesMatt Duckham gave a talk introducing RISER and previous NDRGS and MSE Iconic projects to the joint NDMRI/ADMP seminar at the University of Melbourne on 8 October 2013. The slides for the presentation can be viewed via Prezi.

RISER group meeting

Guy Sharon and Carlos Queiroz

Guy Sharon and Carlos Queiroz from IBM

A first RISER group meeting was held at the University of Melbourne on Friday 4th October. The meeting focused specifically on interaction with IBM partners, with Christian Vecchiola, Andrew Rawlinson, Guy Sharon, and Carlos Queiroz all contributing from IBM, with Matt Duckham, Allison Kealy, Bill Moran, and Susanne Bleisch from University of Melbourne.

NSF WIFIRE project

Congratulations to WIFIRE, a major research project on wildfire predictions and simulations led by UCSD researcher Ilkay Altintas, which was awarded $2.65M USD funding from the NSF. The project further strengthens the RISER project’s strong link to UCSD in the area of information systems for emergency management. UCSD and RISER researcher Jessica Block is also collaborator on the WIFIRE project, and the RISER team supported the WIFIRE funding proposal.

RISER has started!

The RISER project officially started on 16th September 2013. Our sincere thanks to everyone who helped and worked with us in achieving this first milestone.